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Introduction: Universal history, the Middle East, and the Environmental Perspective

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...According to the Western view of world history the Middle East, in contrast to Europe, has suffered a prolonged decline. Long ago it had flourished economically and culturally, to be sure, and had made an important contribution...

Azarbaydjan

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

1

... Christensen (1987) for a short description of this process. but it must be stressed that the shifting of both political power and economic activity toward the north and northwest of Iranshahr had been under way already in Ilkhanid times. Changes...

From Crisis to Continued Decline: Mesopotamia between Two Plague Pandemics

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...In spite of demographic losses and environmental instability Mesopotamia remained the Empire's chief resource base. In the two centuries after the crisis of the 7th century, tax assessments of agriculture stabilized at a level of about 100...

Environment and Irrigation Technologies

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...On the Iranian Plateau, i.e. the high country extending from the Zagros to the Hindu Kush, the environment sets conditions completely different from those in Mesopotamia and Khuzistan. These conditions, however, are difficult to describe...

The Twin Rivers.

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...Any idea of what the floodplain looked like in the past must be based on projections from the present. But existing conditions are the product of millennia of human activity. Even the number and location of the river channels have changed...

The Zenith of Sistan

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...The Political Context Although remote from the imperial centers, Sistan was certainly a part of Iranshahr: not only did the great kings claim suzerainty over the country, they also made it the scene of some typical feats of advancement...

The Crisis of the Seventh Century: Environmental and Demographic Disaster

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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and

Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...Shortly after the completing of the great Nahrawan system, Mesopotamia was ravaged by a series of disasters: civil wars, invasions, floods, and epidemics. The combined effect was devastating and by late Sassanian times the southern part...

Fars

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...According to the Abbasid assessments Fars was the most important region on the Plateau after Djibal. That it had occupied a similar position in earlier times is clear from the fragmentary Sassanian assessment and from the large-scale...

Growth and Stabilization of the New Settlement Pattern: Djibal

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...With the transition from the classical sources to the Persian historical tradition and, especially, the 10th-century geographical literature, information on the Plateau increases, though it remains distributed unevenly through time...

Recapitulation and Comparison: Contrasting Highlands with Floodplain

Pete Christensen

Peter Christensen is Lecturer at the Institute of History, University of Copenhagen and at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Copenhagen. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Steve Sampson

Steve Sampson

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The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

0

...Like Mesopotamia, the Plateau clearly saw a considerable expansion of settlement and irrigation in Parthian and Sassanian times. Moreover, again like Mesopotamia, state-directed colonization appears to have been a key part in the process...