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Conclusion

The Wine Trade in Medieval Europe 1000–1500

Continuum, 2011

Book chapter

...In Greek and Roman times it can be argued that all high-volume trades were concerned solely with basic commodities, the very necessities of life; grain, olive oil, and in Mediterranean society, wine can plausibly be placed...

Plantings

A Cultural History of Gardens in the Medieval Age

Bloomsbury Academic, 2013

Book chapter

...It has often been observed that medieval gardens were planted to serve practical needs. Janet Ferrier’s comments are representative: “Gardens in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were prized more for their utilitarian value than...

Azarbaydjan

The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

...Azarbaydjan comprises the northwestern corner of the Iranian Plateau, from the Qizil Uzan and the Tarum Highlands in the south to the Aras (Arakes) in the north. Arran , i.e. the territory further to the north, between the Aras and the Kur...

From Crisis to Continued Decline: Mesopotamia between Two Plague Pandemics

The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

...In spite of demographic losses and environmental instability Mesopotamia remained the Empire's chief resource base. In the two centuries after the crisis of the 7th century, tax assessments of agriculture stabilized at a level of about 100...

Health, Disease, and the Medieval Body

A Cultural History of the Human Body in the Medieval Age

Bloomsbury Academic, 2010

Book chapter

...Diet and environment shape the physical health and disease risks of human populations. Because people in the Middle Ages accepted different notions and concepts of health and disease than we hold today, it can be confusing to build...

Introduction: Universal history, the Middle East, and the Environmental Perspective

The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

...According to the Western view of world history the Middle East, in contrast to Europe, has suffered a prolonged decline. Long ago it had flourished economically and culturally, to be sure, and had made an important contribution...

Waste Management in Medieval Europe

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the Global Middle Ages

Bloomsbury Publishing, 2019

Encyclopedia entry

...Theme Description The study of waste and the way people have sought to manage it in the past is a relatively new theme of research in medieval studies. An interest in the daily life of past individuals, combined with rising concerns over...

Work and Mobility

A Cultural History of Work in the Medieval Age

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Book chapter

...In a number of respects worker immobility was once seen as a defining element of the medieval period. Historians formerly looked back on the “Middle Ages” as a time largely wedged between the barbarian invasions that despoiled classical...

Work, Skill, and Technology

A Cultural History of Work in the Medieval Age

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Book chapter

...Modern popular culture often takes the view that the Middle Ages were a backward era; yet the period from 800 to 1450 saw many major technological advances, the development of new forms of skilled labor, and increasing expertise...

The Climax of Irrigation: Mesopotamia under Sassanian Rule

The Decline of Iranshahr : Irrigation and Environment in the Middle East, 500 bc–ad 1500

I.B.Tauris, 2016

Book chapter

...On the basis of the archaeological surveys Robert Adams concludes that the expansion of settlement and cultivation that had begun in Neo-Babylonian times reached its high point under Sassanian rule, i.e. from the 3rd to 7th centuries.Adams...