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  • Myth and Legend
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Bust of Polyphemus

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...This sculpted head of the giant Cyclops Polyphemus came from a larger sculptural group depicting a scene from The Odyssey. We cannot tell if it is a Greek or Roman work, since Roman artists often very closely copied Greek models...

Sindbādnāma: A Zurvanite Cosmogonic Legend?

Early Islamic Iran

I.B.Tauris, 2012

Book chapter

...By cosmogony (āfarinesh) is understood an account of how the cosmos first came into being. The word cosmogony is, however, generally applied to mythic–religious accounts of the world’s origin current among the peoples of antiquity. Ancient...

Pliny the Elder, Natural History

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...For an excellent detailed commentary on this passage, see Pliny the Elder, The Natural History Book VII (with Book VIII, 1–34), ed. Tyler T Travillian (London: Bloomsbury, 2015), 105–23, with notes (pp. 15–26) on all of Pliny’s sources...

The Epic of Gilgamesh

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...By far the oldest text included in this volume, The Epic of Gilgamesh retains its ability to delight. Though its literary history dates back to the third millennium BCE, the “standard” version is written in Babylonian and dates from...

Modern Images of Grendel (Twentieth Century)

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...Grendel looms large in the narrative of Beowulf and in many modern critical discussions of the epic poem. The monster is called a “mearcstapa” in the poem, which literally means “border-walker.” This monster, who lives with his mother...

St. Augustine of Hippo, City of God — Selections (XVI.vii–ix; XXI.vii–viii)

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...Augustine (354–430 CE) was bishop of the North African town of Hippo. His works had profound influence on theology and philosophy in the Latin West, and he is considered one of the most important of the Church Fathers whose impact...

The Bible

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...The Bible is perhaps the most important and influential text in Western cultural history. It did not begin as a single book, but is instead something of a compilation of sources written by Jews and Christians in the ancient period...

Renaissance Figures of Monsters

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...The images that accompany Ambroise Paré’s On Monsters present a range of monster types, for which the text gives a variety of explanations. Paré claims that the foal with the human face foretold a war between Florence and Pisa...

Donestre, Huntress, and Boar-Tusked Women

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...The illustrations to the Beowulf Manuscript’s version of the Wonders of the East are strange, difficult images. They do not always make immediate sense, and though closely related to the text, they rarely seem to illustrate it in any...

Homer, the Odyssey, Odysseus and his Men Encounter the Cyclops

Primary Sources on Monsters : Demonstrare Volume 2

Arc Humanities Press, 2018

Book chapter

...Written sometime in the eighth century BCE, The Odyssey, along with The Iliad, was first passed down orally from generation to generation for hundreds of years, resulting in formulaic elements such as consistent epithets (e.g...