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  • Global Queenship and Powerful Women of the Middle Ages
  • Magic and the Medieval World
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    Magic and the Medieval World

    Bloomsbury Medieval Studies provides numerous ways with which to explore the fascinating topic of magic from a global perspective: from primary texts of witch trial proceedings and a scanned witch-hunting handbook, to articles and book chapters that examine the political and social context of magic, sorcery and demon beliefs around the world.

    Witches

    This image is showing the Malleus Maleficarum, Heinrich Institoris
    Malleus Maleficarum  (licensed from Senate House Library)

    Malleus Maleficarum

    The most famous of the witchcraft manuals, the Malleus Maleficarum – or Hammer of Witches – of 1486 revised key perceptions about the practice of magic and contributed to the burgeoning era of witch trials at the close of the Middle Ages. Its impact was in part due to its emphasis on the figure of the female, domestic witch over the previous association of sorcery with the male, learned necromancer. Access a high-resolution, zoomable version of the original text here.

    This is an image showing a Persian miniature of Guyuk khan by Abdullâh Sultân
    Guyuk khan image from a Persian miniature by Abdullâh Sultân (atelier). Shîrâz (Wikimedia Commons, public domain)

    Fatima Khatun

    A woman with great influence in the state affairs and finance of the Mongol Empire through her friendship with Törägänä Khatun, Fatima Khatun’s downfall in 1245 was wrought by accusations of sorcery from the amirs and noyans of the ulus. As described in Wheeler M Thackston’s commentary on the Persian Histories of the Mongol Dynasties, the grandson of Genghis Khan and third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, Güyük Khan, sentenced her to death for supposedly causing his brother’s illness through magic.

    Folio from a first half of the fourteenth century illustrated manuscript, showing sfandiyar playing a string instrument. The female next to him is a witch.
    Isfandiyar's fourth course: he slays a sorceress.(Public domain from the Metropolitan Museum of Art)

    Isfandiyar and the Witch

    This folio from a fourteenth century manuscript, most likely originating from Isfahan, Iran, shows a scene from the Book of Kings (Shahnama). The hero Isfandiyar plays a string instrument and uses his music and the promise of wine to lure a sorceress closer so that he may strike her with his sword.


    Political Magic

    Picture showing the coin of Almoravid ruler Ali ibn Yusuf
    Coin of Almoravid ruler Ali ibn Yusuf (Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)

    Queen Zaynab Al-Nafzawiyya

    “Some say that the genies [jinn] spoke to her, others that she was a sorceress and a fortune teller” - one of the most demonstrably powerful women in the eleventh-century Maghreb, Zaynab bint Ishaq al-Nafzawwiyya had a crucial role in the rise of the Almoravid Empire and in the complicated politics of its court. Read more about Zaynab’s political goals and reversals of fortune on her way to queenship in this eBook chapter.


    Image taken from An 18th century album of portraits of 86 emperors of China, with Chinese historical notes.
    Empress Wu (Wu Zetian) (Wikimedia Commons, public domain)

    Wu Zetian

    The founder of the Zhou Dynasty and one of the most controversial sovereign rulers in Chinese imperial history, Wu Zetian was known for surrounding herself with magicians. She used both magical and religious symbolism to legitimize her swift rise to the dragon throne, where she remained from 690 to 705. Read more about Wu Zetian’s rise to power and the auspicious omens and superstition-based performances that she used to bolster her position in this study of global queenship.

    Picture showing Edward IV York, (1442-1483)
    Edward IV (Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)

    The Wars of the Roses

    Accusations of political crimes and treason involving magic abounded in this bloody conflict between the Yorkists and Lancastrians of England at the close of the Medieval period. In one such instance during the reign of Edward IV in 1477, Thomas Burdett was accused of engaging John Stacy and Thomas Blake to calculate ‘by art magic, necromancy and astronomy, the death and final destruction of the king and prince’. Learn more about the fate of the accused and magic as a political crime in Medieval England.

    Demons

    Picture showing Witches’ activities.From Ulrich Molitor, De laniis et phitonicis mulieribus, 1489
    Witches’ activities from Ulrich Molitor, De laniis et phitonicis mulieribus, 1489 (De laniis et phitonicis mulieribus, 1489)

    Invocation and Accusation

    “Moreover, the accused gave his daughter Françoise, then aged six months, to this devil, his teacher, and Beelzebub, his teacher, killed her; and thereafter…committed and perpetrated many acts of sorcery by following his teacher’s instructions on what he should do and when he should do it.” In a series of readings from trials of witches and other workers of magic conducted by inquisitors 1245-1540, many of the accused stand trial for the summoning of demons.

    Picture showing an enthroned man wearing a fool's cap illustrates the opening verse of Psalm 52.
    The Fool with Two Demons, Master of the Ingeborg Psalter (Getty, Creative Commons)

    Demons and Mental Health

    A new article from the Encyclopedia of the Global Middle Ages explores the medieval understanding of the causes of mental illness, now generally accepted to be more varied and nuanced than often thought. Contemporary Western texts suggest a range of causes were appreciated-namely grief, illness, alcohol, poor diet, or an imbalance in the humours. However, religious belief in demons as a cause of mental illness were also prevalent: both the French theologian Thomas Aquinas and the Silesian scholar Witelo believed that demons could enter the body and upset the balance of the humours.

    Picture of a detail of a historiated initial C (Constellacio) showing an astrologer studying the heavens using a manual with the assistance of a demon in a magic circle, ca. 1360–ca. 1375.
    British Library, Royal 6.E.VI, James le Palmer, Omne Bonum, fol. 396v. Detail of a historiated initial C (Constellacio) showing an astrologer studying the heavens using a manual with the assistance of a demon in a magic circle, ca. 1360–ca. 1375. (©The British Library)

    Demons and Christianity

    The early fathers of the church in Europe attempted to forge a new Christian orthodoxy out of existing beliefs and had to redefine the practice of magic in a Christian context. This meant insisting that all magic was demonic in origin, and that the practice of it was always morally wrong. Learn more about the uneasy relationship between Christianity, proto-scientific epistemology and the concept of demons in this eBook chapter.


    Global Queenship and Powerful Women of the Middle Ages

    Bloomsbury Medieval Studies provides numerous ways with which to explore the fascinating topic of queenship from a global perspective: from articles and book chapters that place this concept in its historical and cultural contexts, to case studies of specific powerful women of the period and depictions of queens in works of art.

    Reliquary pendant with Queen Margaret of Sicily blessed by Bishop Reginald of Bath
    Reliquary pendant with Queen Margaret of Sicily (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

    The lives of royal women

    The study of queenship brings together the biographical study of the lives of royal women with an analysis of their agency and activity. Queenship scholars draw on a number of different disciplines including history, literature studies, art history, politics, gender studies, archaeology, and religious studies in order to thoroughly scrutinize the wide variety of evidence from the lives of royal women.

    Read a thematic overview of Global Queenship from the Encyclopedia of the Global Middle Ages.

    Queen Tamar of Geogria: part of the 12th-13th-century Vardzia Monastery mural
    Part of the 12th-13th-century Vardzia Monastery mural (Wikimedia Commons, public domain)

    Tamar the Great

    Tamar the Great (born ca. 1160, r. 1184–1213) ruled the medieval kingdom of Georgia at the height of its political power and cultural influence. Tamar has been neglected in historical works outside of Georgia, particularly in western languages, but scholars have recently begun to investigate her reign, examine her alongside other monarchs and speculate about the factors that enabled her success.

    Find out about Tamar the Great and her historical context and significance in this Core Case Study from the Encyclopedia of the Global Middle Ages.

    Image taken from An 18th century album of portraits of 86 emperors of China, with Chinese historical notes.
    Empress Wu (Wu Zetian) (Wikimedia Commons, public domain)

    Wu Zetian

    Before Wu Zetian’s reign (690–705) no woman had ever dared to present herself as emperor. She was the first, and last, woman who not only played a patriarchal role, but who convinced her vassals that she deserved the “Mandate of Heaven” (tianming 天命).

    Read more about Tang Empress Wu Zetian in this Core Case Study from the Encylopedia of the Global Middle Ages.

    Eleanor of Aquitaine (1124-1204) reconciling her sons Richard I, Coeur de Lion, King of England 1189-1199, and his heir John, King of England 1199-1216.
    Eleanor of Aquitaine (1124-1204) Colour-printed wood engraving by Jafnes Doyle (1822-1892). (Photo via Getty Images)

    Eleanor of Aquitaine

    Eleanor of Aquitaine (d. 1204) was one of the most powerful queens in medieval Europe as well as a noteworthy patron of the arts. Her spectacular life was marked with momentous events and renown, through which she navigated the complex terrain of going on crusade, dealing with divorce and remarriage, negotiating conflict with her second husband that would result in her imprisonment, and correspondence with key contemporary figures such as Bernard of Clairvaux and Abbot Suger.

    Explore the life of Eleanor of Aquitane within the context of Medieval women and their artistic representation in Medieval visual culture.

    Billon Jital coin in circulation during Razia Sultana’s reign
    Billon jital coin in circulation during Razia Sultana’s reign over the Sultanate of Delhi (Wikimedia Commons, public domain)

    Razia Sultana

    The most notable amongst all of the royal women of the Sultanate of Delhi was the regnant queen Razia (1236–1240), who adopted the gender-neutral title of Sultan. Razia has a unique position in the history of India, as both the only regnant queen of Medieval India and woman to sit on the throne of Delhi.

    Learn more about Razia Sultana in this Core Case Study from the Encyclopedia of the Global Middle Ages.

    Stained glass panel depicting Saint Kunigunde, queen and wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II
    Stained glass panel with Queen Kunigunde (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

    Queen Kunigunde, Holy Roman Empress

    Queen Kunigunde, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Henry II, is depicted in stained glass with a halo, crown and holding a sceptre. She is reported to have been politically active, taking part in Imperial councils and advising her husband. She was eventually canonized as Saint Kunigunde by Pope Innocent III in March 1200.

    View this museum object, part of The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Medieval collection, in closer detail.